By Arthur D. Efland
An exam of the cognitive implications of schooling within the arts to determine how, or even if, contributors can advance their powers of proposal extra totally via widening their realizing of the humanities. the writer discusses 3 difficulties which could impact the prestige of arts in the school room.
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Extra info for Art and Cognition: Integrating the Visual Arts in the Curriculum
In time the child differentiates schemata by developing a mental structure for cats and another for dogs. Thus, the original schema was modified to accommodate different classes of stimuli based on similar groups of characteristics. This describes the process of accommodation, which is defined as “the creation of new schemata or the modification of old schemata” (Wadsworth, 1971, p. 16). 26 ART AND COGNITION Once accommodation has taken place and new schemata are formed, the child might try to assimilate stimuli into the new structure.
That is, when sign systems like language, writing, number systems, and artworks are internalized, they result in behavioral transformations that form a bridge between the early and later forms of development. Thus, for Vygotsky, “in the tradition of Marx and Engels, the mechanism of individual developmental change is rooted in society and culture” (Cole & Scribner, 1978, p. 7). Signs, instruments, and tools. Vygotsky uses the terms instruments and tools to refer to ways that humans acquire knowledge that mediates their higher mental processes by modifying the stimuli they encounter, using them to both control surrounding conditions and regulate their own behavior.
We are not born with these abili- 24 ART AND COGNITION ties but acquire them” (p. 10). Parsons also identifies several features that must be present in such theories: • A sequence of invariant steps, some of which must be acquired before others • Plotting of the growth of constructions as learners come to understand a domain of knowledge • Stages as clusters of ideas internally related to each other Learning to understand art, he goes on to suggest, is an example of these stages: [W]hen we come to understand a painting as an attempt by an artist to express a state of mind, we also tend to think of aesthetic response as reexperiencing that state of mind and of aesthetic judgment as being largely subjective and inward looking.
Art and Cognition: Integrating the Visual Arts in the Curriculum by Arthur D. Efland