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By A.L. Septier

ISBN-10: 012014574X

ISBN-13: 9780120145744

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2) where n is the density of charge carriers and q the charge on each. com 49 Electromagnetism for Electronic Engineers 3. Steady electric currents where ı is the conductivity of the material, measured in siemens per metre. J is measured in coulombs per square metre per second or in amperes per square metre, defining the ampere as a current of one coulomb per second. It is sometimes convenient to use the reciprocal of conductivity which is known as resistivity (ȡ). Resistivity is measured in V m A-1 or ȍ m.

23) Now the coefficients b and c can be expressed in terms of the positions of the vertices of the triangle and of the potentials at them. Thus the stored energy in the element can be expressed in terms of the same quantities. Fig. 7 The finite element method: (a) a single element and (b) a cluster of elements. Now consider the cluster of triangular elements with a common vertex at A, as shown in Fig. 12(b). The energy stored in the cluster of elements, W, is the sum of the energies stored in each.

27). In the special case of currents flowing in wires, as shown in Fig. 16) which is Kirchhoff’s current law familiar from electrical circuit theory. The continuity equation is therefore a generalization of Kirchhoff’s current law. com 53 Electromagnetism for Electronic Engineers 3. Steady electric currents In general, provided that the conductivity is constant, the current density distribution can be calculated from the solution of Laplace’s equation. The figure on the right shows a typical problem: a strip with a step change in its width.

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Applied Charged Particle Optics by A.L. Septier

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