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Eventually, galactic morphology must be explained by functional relations between the observed geometric parameters and the physical parameters that govern the structure and dynamics of galaxies. Thus, since the primary task is to relate the geometric and dynamic parameters, it seems most straightforward to apply the Einstein field equations, for these equations directly relate the salient geometric and physical descriptors (tensors). The use of the Einstein field equations, however, demands a self-consistent and dynamically complete specification of the momentum-energy tensor of a galaxy, and this requires data that are not available at the present time.

Commencing with the tetrad {WaA(O)}, we can extend it to a field of tetrads {W:(x)} over lff in any number of different ways. ;A(O)} along the geodesic in lff that connect the points 0 and x, provided x lies in the neighborhood of 0 for which the geodesic connectivity is single valued. ,A(O)} in a normed null basis on lff35. If this done, the tetrad forms what may be referred to as a "radiation frame" since two of its constituent vectors are real null vectors that are tangent to the null cone at each point of lff.

Detailed studies of a number of late ellipticals 3 and SO's reveal that their contours frequently depart from true ellipsoids of revolution over a wide range of luminous densities. Although several subclasses of perturbed forms are readily identifiable 4, the wide variety of forms assumed by the contours and the fact that the isophotes frequently reverse their trend of change with respect to the luminous density greatly complicate the attempt to establish a morphological classification system based on empirical geometric parameters 5.

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About Mass-Energy Equivalence by Harrison D.M.

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