By Darryl J. Leiter
One other very important survey within the outstanding Scientists sequence, A to Z of Physicists focuses not just at the lives and personalities of these profiled, but in addition on their study and contributions to the sphere. a desirable and demanding component to this quantity is the eye paid to the stumbling blocks that girls and minority physicists have triumph over to arrive their own pursuits. via incidents, quotations, and pictures, the entries painting whatever of the human face that's frequently misplaced in books on technological know-how and scientists. A to Z of Physicists gains a hundred and fifty entries and 50 black-and-white images. Culturally inclusive and spanning the complete diversity of physicists from precedent days to the current day, this can be a terrific source for college kids and normal readers drawn to the historical past of physics or the numerous facets of the non-public lives of significant physicists.
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Instead of the faint images he expected to appear, he was amazed to discover images that were quite distinct; the plates had been strongly exposed to radiation. He concluded that this phenomenon was not related to fluorescence, but was a continuous and natural emission by the crystals. Studying the radiation, he found that it behaved in the same way as X rays: that is, it penetrated matter and ionized air. He showed that the radiation was due to the presence of uranium in the crystals and subsequently found that a disk of pure uranium is also highly radioactive.
A later prediction that other series of secondary emissions might exist was justified when an M series with even lower penetrating power than the K series was discovered. In 1909 Barkla became professor of physics at Kings College, London, and in 1913 he became professor of natural philosophy at Edinburgh University. In the years that followed he received many honors for this work, all culminating in the 1917 Nobel Prize in physics. The last years of his life were saddened by the death of his youngest son, Flight Lieutenant Michael Barkla, a brilliant scholar, who was killed in action in 1943.
Ships and submarines from magnetic mines and torpedoes. In 1945 he joined the newly formed research group in solid state physics, which included Walter Brittain and was directed by William Shockley, at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in John Bardeen invented the transistor and developed a comprehensive theory of superconductivity. (AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives) Murray Hill, New Jersey, where his research on semiconductors led in 1947 to the development of the transistor. Physicists first understood the electrical properties of semiconductors in the late 1930s, when they became aware of the role of low concentrations of impurities in controlling the number of mobile charge carriers in materials.
A to Z of Physicists (Notable Scientists) by Darryl J. Leiter