By Malcolm Offord
A pupil Grammar of French is a concise advent to French grammar, designed particularly for English-speaking undergraduates. conserving technical aspect to a minimal, it explains the basics of the grammar in available and straightforward phrases, and is helping scholars to place their studying into perform via quite a number enjoyable and interesting routines. all of the crucial themes are coated, with chapters on verbs, nouns, adjectives, pronouns, determiners, prepositions, adverbs, negation, numerals, sentences, and clauses. each grammatical element is illustrated with quite a number real examples drawn from magazines and newspapers, protecting many parts of up to date existence reminiscent of style, wellbeing and fitness matters, relationships and activity. it truly is truly equipped right into a common, numbered indexing process, permitting the learner to speedy and simply find any grammatical subject. Functioning either as an fundamental reference consultant and a accomplished workbook, this grammar turns into the suitable accompaniment to any first or moment 12 months undergraduate path.
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Additional info for A Student Grammar of French
Example of Subgroup 6 e´ crire j’´ecris, tu e´ cris, il/elle/on e´ crit, nous e´ crivons, vous e´ crivez, ils/elles e´ crivent 37 –re verbs Subgroup 7 This subgroup contains a series of common verbs which are very irregular in formation, and each of which has a distinctive conjugation for the present tense. Examples of Subgroup 7 boire = to drink je bois, tu bois, il/elle/on boit, nous buvons, vous buvez, ils/elles boivent craindre = to fear je crains, tu crains, il/elle/on craint, nous craignons, vous craignez, ils/elles craignent dire = to say je dis, tu dis, il/elle/on dit, nous disons, vous dites, ils/elles disent faire = to do 14 42 –oir verbs Subgroup 3 je fais, tu fais, il/elle/on fait, nous faisons, vous faites, ils/elles font prendre = to take je prends, tu prends, il/elle/on prend, nous prenons, vous prenez, ils/elles prennent vivre = to live je vis, tu vis, il/elle/on vit, nous vivons, vous vivez, ils/elles vivent and the supreme irregular –re verb eˆ tre = to be je suis, tu es, il/elle/on est, nous sommes, vous eˆ tes, ils/elles sont 38 Group 4 –oir Verbs 39 Present tense of Group 4 –oir verbs Even more so than with Group 3 –re verbs, stem alterations and the existence of small subgroups are extremely common in this group.
However, many verbs in this group form their past participles in distinctive ways. 60 Group 3 –re verbs with distinctive past participles absoudre – absous = absolved, ´ecrire – e´ crit, suivre – suivi = followed, conduire– conduit, craindre – craint, dire – dit, faire – fait, prendre – pris, naˆıtre – n´e, ˆetre – e´ t´e 61 Past participles of Group 4 –oir verbs All the verbs in this group (with the exception of asseoir, past participle – assis) form their past participle in –u, but often with considerable modification of the stem.
As with Group 3 –re verbs, some form their past historics in –i–, others – the majority – in –u–. Group 4 –oir endings of past historic singular –is –is –it plural –ˆımes –ˆıtes –irent singular –us –us –ut plural ˆ –umes ˆ –utes –urent 86 Group 4 –oir verbs with past historic endings in –i– s’asseoir je m’assis, tu t’assis, il/elle/on s’assit, nous nous assˆımes, vous vous assˆıtes, il/elles s’assirent voir je vis, tu vis, il/elle/on vit, nous vˆımes, vous vˆıtes, ils/elles virent 87 Group 4 –oir verbs with past historic endings in –u– avoir ˆ ˆ j’eus, tu eus, il/elle/on eut, nous eumes, vous eutes, ils/elles eurent devoir ˆ ˆ je dus, tu dus, il/elle/on dut, nous dumes, vous dutes, ils/elles durent falloir 36 90 Examples: Group 1–4 verbs il fallut pleuvoir il plut pouvoir ˆ ˆ je pus, tu pus, il/elle/on put, nous pumes, vous putes, ils/elles purent recevoir ˆ ˆ je rec¸us, tu rec¸us, il/elle/on rec¸ut, nous rec¸umes, vous rec¸utes, ils/elles rec¸urent savoir ˆ ˆ je sus, tu sus, il/elle/on sut, nous sumes, vous sutes, ils/elles surent valoir ˆ ˆ je valus, tu valus, il/elle/on valut, nous valumes, vous valutes, ils/elles valurent vouloir ˆ ˆ je voulus, tu voulus, il/elle/on voulut, nous voulumes, vous voulutes, ils/elles voulurent Past anterior tense 88 General comments This is the least common of the indicative tenses and is only used in conjunction with the past historic, itself very uncommon in spoken French and in informal writing – see 133.
A Student Grammar of French by Malcolm Offord