By John G. Webster (Editor)
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Additional resources for 09.Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
All current TV systems (National Television System Committee [NTSC], PAL, SECAM) use interlaced scanning. One of the principal benefits of interlaced scanning is to reduce the scan rate (or the bandwidth) without significanty reducing image quality. This is done with a relatively high field rate (a lower field rate would cause flicker), while maintaining a high total number of scan lines in a frame (lower number of lines per frame would reduce resolution on static images). Interlace cleverly preserves the high-detail visual information and, at the same time, avoids visible large area flicker at the display due to insufficient temporal post-filtering by the human eye.
Channel changes and severe transmission errors are detected in the decoder causing a fast picture recovery process to be initiated. Less severe transmission errors are handled gracefully by several algorithms depending on the type of error. Processing and memory in the decoder are minimized. Processing consists of one inverse spatial transform and a variable length decoder which are realizable in a few very large scale integration (VLSI) chips. Memory in the decoder consists of one full frame and a few compressed frames.
The motion of objects from frame-to-frame is estimated using hierarchical block matching. Using the motion vectors, a displaced frame difference (DFD) is computed which generally contains a small fraction of the information in the original frame. The DFD is transformed using DCT to remove the spatial redundancy. Each new frame of DFD is analyzed prior to coding to determine its rate versus perceptual distortion characteristics and the dynamic range of each coefficient (forward analysis). Quantization of the transform coefficients is performed based on the perceptual importance of each coefficient, the precomputed dynamic range of the coefficients, and the rate versus distortion characteristics.
09.Circuits and Systems for Video Technology by John G. Webster (Editor)